William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, Forgotten Dead: Mob Violence against Mexicans, 1848–1928 (nyc, 2013)
William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “‘Muerto por Unos Desconocidos (Killed by Persons Unknown)’:…
… Mob Violence against African Americans and Mexican Americans, ” in Beyond monochrome: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender within the U.S. Southern and Southwest, ed. Stephanie Cole and Allison Parker (College facility, 2004), 35–74; William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “A Dangerous Experiment: The Lynching of Rafael Benavides, ” New Mexico Historical Review, 80 (summer time 2005), 265–92. For a Texas research study, see Nicholas Villaneuva Jr., “‘Sincerely Yours for Dignified Manhood’: Lynching, Violence, and United states Manhood during early several years of the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1914, ” Journal of this West, 49 (cold temperatures 2010), 41–48. The Chinatown War: Chinese Los Angeles and the Massacre of 1871 (New York, 2012) on mob violence against “racial others” in the West, see, for example, Pfeifer, Rough Justice, 86–88; Pfeifer, Roots of Rough Justice, 46–50; and Scott Zesch. Another ethnic group perceived as racially different in the postbellum South, see Clive Webb, “The Lynching of Sicilian Immigrants in the American South, 1886–1910, ” American Nineteenth Century History, 3 (Spring 2002), 45–76 on the lynching of 29 sicilians. Regarding the lynching of Sicilians in Colorado, see Stephen J. Leonard, Lynching in Colorado, 1859–1919 (Boulder, 2002), 135–42.
Christopher Waldrep, the countless Faces of Judge Lynch: Extralegal Violence and Punishment in the usa (nyc, 2002); Christopher Waldrep, ed., Lynching in the usa: a brief history in papers (ny, 2006); Christopher Waldrep, African People in america Confront Lynching: methods of opposition through the Civil War into the Civil Rights period (Lanham, 2008); William D. Carrigan and Christopher Waldrep, eds., Swift to Wrath: Lynching in Global Historical attitude (Charlottesville, 2013). Jonathan Markowitz, Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory (Minneapolis, 2004), xxxi. On lynching into the context of Jim Crow tradition, see Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The community of Segregation within the Southern, 1890–1940 (nyc, 1998), 199–238. The Properties of Violence: Claims to Ownership in Representations of Lynching (Jackson, 2012) for analyses of literary and visual representations of lynching from the late nineteenth through the mid-twentieth centuries, see Jacqueline Goldsby, A Spectacular Secret: Lynching in American Life and Literature (Chicago, 2006); and Sandy Alexandre. For narratives of southern and vigilantism that is western lynching, see Lisa Arellano, Vigilantes and Lynch Mobs: Narratives of Community and country (Philadelphia, 2012). For lynching into the context associated with Protestant tradition for the postbellum American South, see Donald G. Mathews, “The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice: Lynching into the United states South, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 62 (Winter–Spring 2008), 27–70. Amy Louise Wood, Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890–1940 (Chapel Hill, 2009), 14. Fury, dir. Fritz Lang ( mgm, 1936); The Ox-Bow Incident, dir. William Wellman (Twentieth Century Fox, 1943). On lynching into the people tradition of new york’s reduced Piedmont, see Bruce E. Baker, “North Carolina Lynching Ballads, ” in less than Sentence of Death, ed. Brundage, 219–46. On lynching in belated nineteenth- and early twentieth-century theater that is black see Koritha Mitchell, managing Lynching: African American Lynching has, Efficiency, and Citizenship, 1890–1930 (Urbana, 2012). Sherrilyn A. Ifill, regarding the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching in the Twenty-First Century (Boston, 2007). For a community research that explored the legacy that is lengthy of inspired lynchings in Marion, Indiana, in 1931, see James H. Madison, Lynching into the Heartland: Race and Memory in the us (ny, 2001). For a summary of lynching in US culture, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, American Lynching ( brand brand New Haven, 2012). For the argument that the end-of-lynching discourse continues to contour and distort discussion of US mob physical violence, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, the termination of American Lynching (brand new Brunswick, 2012).
Crystal Feimster, Southern Horrors: ladies as well as the Politics of Rape and Lynching (Cambridge, Mass., 2009). On African women that are american relationship to lynching, see Evelyn M. Simien, ed., Gender and Lynching: The Politics of Memory (nyc, 2011). The cases of Rosa Jefferson and Marie Scott” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Missouri–Columbia, 2006) for case studies of lynchings of African American women in Georgia, Oklahoma, and South Carolina, see Julie Buckner Armstrong, Mary Turner and the Memory of Lynching (Athens, Ga., 2011); and Maria DeLongoria, “‘Stranger Fruit’: The Lynching of Black Women. For the journalistic remedy for the lynching of two African US partners in Walton County, Georgia, in 1946, see Laura Wexler, Fire in a Canebrake: the past Mass Lynching in the usa (nyc, 2003). Regarding the lynching of females and kids within the West, see Helen McLure, “‘I Suppose you might think Strange the Murder of females and Children’: The US society of Collective Violence, 1675–1930” (Ph.D. Diss., Southern Methodist University, 2009). For a listing of feminine lynching victims, see Kerry Segrave, Lynchings of females in america: The Recorded instances, 1851–1946 (Jefferson, 2010). Claude A. Clegg III, difficult Ground: an account of Murder, Lynching, and Reckoning into the brand brand brand New Southern (Urbana, 2010); Terrence Finnegan, A Deed So Accursed: Lynching in Mississippi and sc, 1881–1940 (Charlottesville, 2013). On Mississippi’s respected record of racial mob physical physical violence, see Julius E. Thompson, Lynchings in Mississippi: a brief history, 1865–1965 (Jefferson, 2007). On lynching into the Carolinas, see Bruce E. Baker, This Mob Will Undoubtedly simply take My Life: Lynching when you look at the Carolinas, 1871–1947 (London, 2008); and J. Timothy Cole, The Forest City Lynching of 1900: Populism, Racism, and White Supremacy in Rutherford County, new york (Jefferson, 2003).
Kidada E. Williams, They Left marks that are great me personally: African US Testimonies of Racial Violence from Emancipation to World War I ( brand New York, 2012). On African American reactions to mob physical physical physical violence, see Karlos Hill, “Resisting Lynching: Ebony Grassroots reactions to Lynching when you look at the Mississippi and Arkansas Deltas, 1882–1938” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Illinois, 2009).
Current scholarship, particularly that centered on civil liberties activism, has started to explore African American responses to racial terror during the level that is local.
On black colored reactions to racial terror in fin-de-siecle Florida as well as in 1960s and 1970s Alabama and Mississippi, respectively, see Paul Ortiz, Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden reputation for Ebony Organizing and White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction towards the Bloody Election of 1920 (Berkeley, 2006); Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Ebony energy in Alabama’s Ebony Belt (ny, 2010); and Akinyele Omowale Umoja, We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance into the Mississippi Freedom Movement (ny, 2013). Ifill, In The Courthouse Lawn, xix–xx. When it comes to Senate apology, see Congressional Record, 109 Cong., 1 sess., 13, 2005, p. S6364–88 june. For news protection of this U.S. Senate apology see, as an example, Wendy Koch, “U.S. Senate Moves to Apologize for Injustice, ” usa Today, June 13, 2005; and Martin C. Evans, “An Apology for Old type of Terror: Senate Expects to Vote Tomorrow on sex chatrooms Resolution regarding Its Failure to aid End Practice of Lynching, ” Newsday, June 12, 2005, p. A34. On efforts to memorialize lynchings in Duluth, Minnesota, in 1920 plus in cost, Utah, in 1925, respectively, see Dora Apel, “Memorialization and its own Discontents: America’s First Lynching Memorial, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 61 (Winter–Spring 2008); and Kimberley Mangun and Larry R. Gerlach, “Making Utah History: Press Coverage regarding the Robert Marshall Lynching, June 1925, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie, ed. Pfeifer, 143–47. The chains: In Montgomery, Ala., a Move to Remember Slavery Exactly Where It Happened, ” New York Times, Dec. 10, 2013, pp on an effort by Bryan Stevenson and the Equal Justice Initiative to erect memorials at lynching sites around the South, see Campbell Robertson, “Before the Battles and the protests. 17–18.